National Park Of American Samoa

Rank: 330

Park Description

The National Park of American Samoa welcomes you into the heart of the South Pacific, to a world of sights, sounds, and experiences that you will find in no other national park in the United States. Enjoy this unique national park in the heart of the South Pacific and the welcoming people of American Samoa. We are here to protect its rich culture and natural resources. Come explore them with us!

Park Address

National Park of American Samoa MHJ Building, 2nd Floor

Pago Pago, AS, 96799

National Park Of American Samoa Activites








Species in National Park Of American Samoa by Category

Here you can look up all the species found in National Park Of American Samoa. Start by picking a category. From there you can see how many species have either the common name beggining with each letter or scientific name. It's a good place to start if you're looking for what kind of species are invasive to the park, or perhaps how common or rare a species is for that area.

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Black Rat Rattus rattus Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
domestic dog, feral dog Canis familiaris Probably Present Non-native - -
domestic cat, house cat Felis silvestris Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Feral Pig Sus scrofa Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae Present Native Rare
house mouse Mus musculus Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Polynesian rat Rattus exulans Present Non-native Common

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Black Noddy Anous minutus Present Native Uncommon
BROWN NODDY Anous stolidus Present Native Common
Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus Present Non-native Uncommon
Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica Probably Present Non-native - -
Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis Probably Present Non-native - -
Barn Owl, North American Barn Owl Tyto alba Present Non-native Uncommon
brown booby, lu'ao Sula leucogaster Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
chunge', white tern Gygis alba Present Native Common
cardinal honeyeater Myzomela cardinalis Present Native Common
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Not In Park Non-native - -
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Unconfirmed Non-native - -
chuchuko atilong, Pacific reef-heron Egretta sacra Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Eastern Sooty Tern, Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Probably Present Non-native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Laughing Gull Larus atricilla Unconfirmed Non-native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Pacific golden-plover Pluvialis fulva Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres Probably Present Non-native - -
rock dove Columba livia Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Red-footed Booby Sula sula Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Sanderling Calidris alba Probably Present Non-native - -
sihek, white-collared kingfisher Halcyon chloris Present Native Uncommon
Snowy Egret Egretta thula Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus Unconfirmed Non-native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
wandering tattler Heteroscelus incanus Present Non-native Uncommon
White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Present Native Common
WHITE-FACED STORM-PETREL Pelagodroma marina Unconfirmed Non-native - -

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
common green sea turtle, green sea turtle Chelonia mydas Present Native Rare
carey, Hawksbill, hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Present Native Rare
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Rhamphotyphlops braminus Probably Present Non-native - -

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
giant toad, kairo, marine toad Bufo marinus Present Non-native Uncommon

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
African pompano, threadfin Alectis ciliaris Unconfirmed Native - -
almaco jack, Pacific amberjack Seriola rivoliana Present Native Rare
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
black jack Caranx lugubris Present Native Uncommon
Bigeye scad Selar crumenophthalmus Present Native Common
black durgon, black triggerfish Melichthys niger Present Native Common
barred filefish Cantherhines dumerilii Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
cusk-eels Ophidion - - - - - -
common surgeon, doctorfish Paracanthurus hepatus Present Native Occasional
cottonmouth jack Uraspis secunda Unconfirmed Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
flat needlefish Ablennes hians Unconfirmed Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
glasseye snapper Heteropriacanthus cruentatus Present Native Uncommon
great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Houndfish Tylosurus crocodilus Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Indo-Pacific tarpon, oxeye Megalops cyprinoides Unconfirmed Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Keeltail needlefish Platybelone argalus Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
PORCUPINEFISH Diodon hystrix Present Native Rare
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Round Pompano Trachinotus blochii Present Native Rare
Red Snapper Lutjanus gibbus Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
SPOTTED EAGLE RAY Aetobatus narinari Present Native Uncommon
silver pearlfish Encheliophis homei Unconfirmed Native - -
Scrawled filefish Aluterus scriptus Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
yellow jack Gnathanodon speciosus Present Native Uncommon

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
American evergreen, arrowhead vine Syngonium podophyllum Present Non-native Uncommon
asthmaweed, flax-leaf fleabane, flaxleaved fleabane, hairy fleabane, wavy-leaf fleabane Conyza bonariensis Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Atmagosa, Bittermelon Momordica charantia Present Non-native Common
air potato, air yam, bitter yam Dioscorea bulbifera Present Non-native Common
anil de pasto, indigobush Indigofera suffruticosa Present Non-native Common
Agasi, Mayagas Cassytha filiformis Present Native Uncommon
aramina, Caesar weed, Caesarweed, chosuched e kui, dadangsi apaka, hibiscus burr, jute africain Urena lobata Present Non-native Rare
abas, goyavier, guabang, guava, kautonga, kuahpa Psidium guajava Present Non-native Common
Australian beardgrass, Caucasian bluestem Bothriochloa bladhii Present Non-native Uncommon
- - Antrophyum plantagineum Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Bidens alba Present Non-native Abundant
beggar's ticks, cobbler's pegs, common beggarticks, fisi`uli, hairy beggarticks, kofe tonga, matakaro, romerillo, Spanish needles, spanish-needles Bidens pilosa Present Non-native Uncommon
Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye Sphagneticola trilobata Unconfirmed Non-native - -
baybean Canavalia rosea Present Native Uncommon
Bayogo dikiki, Bayogo-dailaili, Gayatan, small seabean Mucuna gigantea Present Native Common
bloodflower, hierba de la cucaracha, scarlet milkweed, wild ipecacuanha Asclepias curassavica Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Browne's blechum Blechum pyramidatum Present Non-native Common
blue snakeweed, bluetop, Cayenne porterweed, Cayenne snakeweed, rattail, rough-leaf false vervain, snakeweed Stachytarpheta cayennensis Present Non-native Common
bitter cassava, cassava, manioc, tapioca Manihot esculenta Present Non-native Common
bishopwood, Javanese bishopweed, Javanese bishopwood, koka, tongotongo, toog Bischofia javanica Present Native Uncommon
Banalo Thespesia populnea Present Native Uncommon
Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Present Non-native Common
bristle basketgrass Oplismenus hirtellus Present Non-native Uncommon
buffalo grass, California grass, Mauritius grass, para grass, puakatau Urochloa mutica Present Non-native Common
Bitter orange, Soap orange Citrus macroptera Present Non-native Uncommon
Beach morning-glory Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis Present Native Abundant
Black Nightshade Solanum americanum Present Non-native Uncommon
banana, French plantain, plantain Musa X paradisiaca Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
coco yam, wild taro Colocasia esculenta Present Non-native Uncommon
centipede tongavine, pothos Epipremnum pinnatum Present Native Common
Cuban zephyrlily Zephyranthes rosea Unconfirmed Non-native - -
cadillo chisaca, coat buttons, coatbuttons, tridax Tridax procumbens Unconfirmed Non-native - -
cencilla, shoreline seapurslane Sesuvium portulacastrum Present Native Rare
climbing dayflower, spreading dayflower Commelina diffusa Present Non-native Common
common water hyacinth, common water-hyacinth, floating water hyacinth, floating waterhyacinth, lirio acuatico, mbekambekairanga, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Unconfirmed Non-native - -
cucumber Cucumis melo Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Coralbean, Kolales halomtano, Prayerbed Abrus precatorius Present Native Uncommon
comb bushmint, comb hyptis, mint weed, mumutun lahe, purple top, timothi ni vavalangi Hyptis pectinata Present Non-native Uncommon
Common Plantain Plantago major Unconfirmed Non-native - -
castorbean Ricinus communis Present Non-native Uncommon
chamber bitter Phyllanthus urinaria Present Non-native Uncommon
Colombian waxweed Cuphea carthagenensis Present Non-native Uncommon
creeping oxalis, creeping woodsorrel, 'ihi, yellow oxalis, yellow wood sorrel Oxalis corniculata Present Non-native Uncommon
chaguan humatag, cocograss, kili'o'opu, nutgrass, pakopako, purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus Present Non-native Common
carpetgrass, common carpetgrass, Louisiana grass, mat grass, narrowleaved carpetgrass Axonopus fissifolius Present Non-native Common
crowfoot grass, Durban crowsfoot grass, Egyptian grass Dactyloctenium aegyptium Present Non-native Uncommon
cutleaf groundcherry, cut-leaf ground-cherry, lanceleaf groundcherry Physalis angulata Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
dog's-tongue Pseudelephantopus spicatus Present Non-native Uncommon
devil's horsewhip Achyranthes aspera Present Native Uncommon
Dixie tick trefoil, Dixie ticktrefoil Desmodium tortuosum Present Non-native Common
Da'ok Calophyllum inophyllum Present Native Common
Dyer's fig, Hodda, Hotda Ficus tinctoria Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
emperor's candlesticks Senna alata Present Non-native Uncommon
Escobilla adumelon, Escobilla apaca, Escobilla dalili Sida rhombifolia Present Non-native Common
East Indian crabgrass Digitaria setigera Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
false daisy Eclipta prostrata Unconfirmed Non-native - -
fourspike heliotrope Heliotropium procumbens Unconfirmed Non-native - -
frangipani, templetree Plumeria rubra Present Non-native Common
forked fimbry Fimbristylis dichotoma Present Non-native Common
Florida Keys nutrush Scleria lithosperma Present Native Common
fingergrass, Henry's crabgrass, kukaepua'a, saulangi, smooth crabgrass, southern crab grass, southern crabgrass, tropical crabgrass Digitaria ciliaris Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
giant taro Alocasia macrorrhizos Present Non-native Common
golden trumpet Allamanda cathartica Present Non-native Common
gulf sandmat Chamaesyce thymifolia Present Non-native Uncommon
golondrina Euphorbia hirta Present Non-native Common
graceful spurge Euphorbia hypericifolia Present Non-native Uncommon
golden beardgrass, golden false beardgrass, inifuk, Mackie's pest, matapekepeke, pilipiliula, seed grass Chrysopogon aciculatus Present Non-native Common
glenwoodgrass Sacciolepis indica Unconfirmed Non-native - -
giant brake Pteris tripartita Present Native Uncommon
Gasoso Colubrina asiatica Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Half-flower, Nanaso, Naupaka Scaevola sericea var. taccada Present Native Abundant
hunig Tournefortia argentea Present Native Uncommon
Hawai'i pearls Caesalpinia major Present Native Uncommon
hyssop-leaf spurge Chamaesyce hyssopifolia Present Non-native Common
Hau ), Pago Hibiscus tiliaceus Present Native Common
herbe creole, Hilo grass, hilograss, muhsrasre, rehn wei, sour grass, ti grass Paspalum conjugatum Present Non-native Common
hogvine Merremia umbellata Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Ifil, Ifit, Ipil Intsia bijuga Present Native Uncommon
Indian goosegrass Eleusine indica Present Non-native Common
India lovegrass, Indian love grass, Indian lovegrass Eragrostis pilosa Unconfirmed Non-native - -
- - Imperata conferta Unconfirmed Native - -
Indian shot Canna indica Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Javanese flatsedge Cyperus javanicus Present Native Common
Jamaican crabgrass Digitaria horizontalis Present Non-native Uncommon
jungle-rice Echinochloa colona Present Non-native Common
Japanese silvergrass, miscanthus, miscanthus, Japanese silvergrass, Pacific Island silvergrass, sawgrass, swordgrass, tupon nette Miscanthus floridulus Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Kudzu Pueraria montana var. lobata Present Non-native Uncommon
Kafu Pandanus tectorius Present Native Common
Kuroiwa grass Thuarea involuta Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
little ironweed Cyanthillium cinereum Present Non-native Common
lilac tasselflower Emilia sonchifolia Present Non-native Common
Lada, Noni Morinda citrifolia Present Non-native Common
largeleaf lantana Lantana camara Present Non-native Uncommon
light-blue snakeweed Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Unconfirmed Non-native - -
lovegrass Eragrostis tenella Present Non-native Common
Langayao Acrostichum aureum Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
minute duckweed Lemna perpusilla Not In Park Non-native - -
Malaysian false pimpernel Lindernia crustacea Present Native Uncommon
Maigo-lalo Phyllanthus amarus Present Non-native Common
Mangle Lahi, Mangle machu, Manglen lahi Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Unconfirmed Native - -
manyspike flatsedge Cyperus polystachyos Present Non-native Common
murainagrass Ischaemum - - - - - -
molasses grass, molassesgrass, puakatau Melinis minutiflora Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Mascarene grass Zoysia tenuifolia Present Non-native Common
mango Mangifera indica Present Non-native Common
Moonflower Ipomoea violacea Present Native Occasional
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Niyok Cocos nucifera Present Native Abundant
nodeweed Synedrella nodiflora Present Non-native Common
narrowleaf plantain Plantago lanceolata Unconfirmed Non-native - -
napier grass Cenchrus purpureus Present Non-native Uncommon
Nunu, Strangler fig Ficus prolixa Present Native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
oriental false hawksbeard Youngia japonica Present Non-native Uncommon
orosne Polygala paniculata Present Non-native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Poisonbulb Crinum asiaticum Present Non-native Uncommon
Philippine ground orchid Spathoglottis plicata Present Native Common
papaya, pawpaw Carica papaya Present Non-native Common
Purslane Portulaca oleracea Present Non-native Common
pongame oiltree Derris indica Unconfirmed Native - -
prostrate spurge Euphorbia prostrata Present Non-native Uncommon
Pacific almond, Talisai Terminalia catappa Present Native Uncommon
pineapple Ananas comosus Present Non-native Common
poorland flatsedge Cyperus compressus Present Non-native Uncommon
Pacific Island thintail Lepturus repens Present Native Common
Panama crowngrass Paspalum fimbriatum Present Non-native Uncommon
- - Phymatosaurus grossus Present Native Common
- - Pyrrosia lanceolata Present Native Common
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
redflower ragleaf Crassocephalum crepidioides Present Non-native Common
rattleweed Crotalaria retusa Unconfirmed Non-native - -
roughhairy indigo Indigofera hirsuta Unconfirmed Non-native - -
radiate fingergrass Chloris radiata Unconfirmed Non-native - -
running mountaingrass Oplismenus compositus Present Non-native Common
Rabbit foot fern Davallia solida Present Native Common
rockweed Pilea microphylla Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
spadeleaf Centella asiatica Present Non-native Common
sessile joyweed Alternanthera sessilis Present Non-native Common
slender amaranth Amaranthus viridis Present Non-native Common
salts rattlebox, smooth crotalaria, smooth rattlebox, striped crotalaria Crotalaria pallida Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Sleeping grass Mimosa pudica Present Non-native Common
stickbush Clerodendrum chinense Present Non-native Uncommon
simpleleaf chastetree Vitex trifolia Present Native Uncommon
staghorn clubmoss Lycopodiella cernua var. cernua Present Native Uncommon
shrubby water primrose Ludwigia octovalvis Present Non-native Common
shortleaf spikesedge Kyllinga brevifolia Present Non-native Common
southern sandbur Cenchrus echinatus Present Non-native Common
seashore paspalum Paspalum vaginatum Present Non-native Common
St. Augustine grass Stenotaphrum secundatum Unconfirmed Non-native - -
Swordfern Nephrolepis biserrata Present Native Common
scaly swordfern Nephrolepis hirsutula Present Native Common
swordfern Macrothelypteris torresiana Present Native Uncommon
spottedheart Stictocardia tiliifolia Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
tiplant Cordyline fruticosa Present Non-native Common
tropical whiteweed Ageratum conyzoides Present Non-native Common
tickclover, zarzabacoa comun Desmodium incanum Present Non-native Common
threeflower ticktrefoil Desmodium triflorum Present Non-native Common
tiger's claw Erythrina variegata Present Native Uncommon
tangantangan Leucaena leucocephala Present Non-native Common
tropical fimbry Fimbristylis cymosa Present Native Uncommon
tropical cup grass Eriochloa fatmensis Present Non-native Common
thin paspalum Paspalum setaceum Present Non-native Uncommon
tropical signalgrass Urochloa subquadripara Present Non-native Uncommon
tallow wood, tallowwood Ximenia americana Unconfirmed Native - -
tropical white morningglory, tropical white morning-glory Ipomoea alba Unconfirmed Non-native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum Unconfirmed Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
violet crabgrass Digitaria violascens Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
white moneywort Alysicarpus vaginalis Present Non-native Common
wild bushbean Macroptilium lathyroides Present Non-native Common
woodland false buttonweed Spermacoce assurgens Present Non-native Common
wild poinsettia Euphorbia cyathophora Unconfirmed Non-native - -
whitehead spikesedge Kyllinga nemoralis Present Non-native Common
western soapberry, wingleaf soapberry Sapindus saponaria Present Native Rare
Woodrose Operculina turpethum var. ventricosa Present Non-native Uncommon
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
yellow necklacepod, yellow sophora Sophora tomentosa Present Native Rare
yellow bristlegrass Setaria pumila Probably Present Non-native - -

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Alpheus brevipes Probably Present Native - -
- - Alpheus bucephalus Probably Present Native - -
- - Alpheus diadema Probably Present Native - -
- - Alpheus microstylus Probably Present Native - -
- - Alpheus parvirostris Probably Present Native - -
- - Athanas djiboutensis Probably Present Native - -
- - Athanas indicus Probably Present Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
daisy snapping shrimp Alpheus gracilipes Probably Present Native - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Synalpheus paraneomeris Probably Present Native - -

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus Present Non-native Abundant

 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Agromyza Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
beet webworm Spoladea recurvalis Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Chrysotus Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
German cockroach Blattella germanica Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Hamaxas nigrorufus Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Monarch, monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Paralabella curvicauda Probably Present Unknown - -
Pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Spathulina acroleuca Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
Wandering Glider Pantala flavescens Probably Present Unknown - -
 Name(s)  Scientific Name  Occurrence  Nativeness  Abundance
- - Xyleborus ferrugineus Probably Present Unknown - -